The science of photography refers to the use of science, such as chemistry and physics, in all aspects of photography. This applies to the camera, its lenses, physical operation of the camera, electronic camera internals, and the process of developing film in order to take and develop pictures properly.
Law of Reciprocity
The law of reciprocity describes how light intensity and duration trade off to make an exposure—it defines the relationship between shutter speed and aperture, for a given total exposure. Changes to any of these elements are often measured in units known as "stops"; a stop is equal to a factor of two.
Halving the amount light exposing the film can be achieved either by:
Closing the aperture by one stop
Decreasing the shutter time (increasing the shutter speed) by one stop
Cutting the scene lighting by half
Likewise, doubling the amount of light exposing the film can be achieved by the opposite of one of these operations.
The luminance of the scene, as measured on a reflected light meter, also affects the exposure proportionately. The amount of light required for proper exposure depends on the film speed; which can be varied in stops or fractions of stops. With either of these changes, the aperture or shutter speed can be adjusted by an equal number of stops to get to a suitable exposure.
This is a list of the known female Transformers in the Transformers franchise. Despite being robotic lifeforms with generally non-sexual methods of reproduction, the Transformer species has almost always been shown to include both male and female gender analogues, at least mentally if not physically. Female Transformers were originally depicted as an anomaly, specifically called out as either a thought-to-be-extinct subgroup or simply never existing in the first place. But over the course of decades, while they are still comparatively rare, they have increased greatly in numbers, prominence and overall fairness of representation, and are considered an official part of the Transformers brand in pretty much every continuity. Female Transformers are basically considered a normal part of the Cybertronian population.
The Female Autobots (known in Japan as the Woman Cybertrons and alternately known as the Fatal Furies and Elita One's Squadron) were seen in the 1985 animated television series, in which they were indicated to be rare, and believed extinct by most other Transformers. They did not appear in the American Marvel comic book series, where it was specifically stated that Transformers do not have genders. It is very clear that the difference between male and female Transformers is much more than the shape of their bodies, it is a sociocultural difference, with each "gender" possessing—in a general sense—the traits usually associated, at least partially stereotypically, with the human genders. This list also includes females of the Maximals, the Mini-Cons and other heroic factions similar to the Autobots to give a better summary of the topic.
On 30 November 2008 while sailing on the Gulf of Aden the Nautica came under attack by Somalian pirates, but was able to escape without any injuries to passenger or crew.
Concept and construction
R Five was the fifth ship in a series of eight identical cruise ships built between 1998 and 2001 by Chantiers de l'Atlantique at Saint-Nazaire, France for Renaissance Cruises. Her keel was laid on 22 March 1999 and she was launched from drydock on 31 July 1999. Following fitting out, the R Five was delivered to Renaissance Cruises on 29 January 2000.
On 1 February 2000 the R Five entered service with Renaissance Cruises on cruises in the Mediterranean. She stayed in service until 25 September 2001, when Renaissance Cruises was declared bankrupt due to financial difficulties caused by the September 11 attacks. Alongside six of her sister ships the R Five was laid up at Gibraltar. In December 2001 she was sold to the France-based Cruiseinvest and alongside her sisters was moved to Marseille, France for a further lay-up.